Make your own free website on Tripod.com
Home Page
主頁
New Data
最新資料
Chronology
歷史編年表
HK/Macao
港澳錢幣
Cast Coins
中國古錢
Struck Coins
機鑄幣
Paper Money
紙幣
Values/Wants
估值及征購
Links/References
網站鏈接參考



最常見的中國銅錢 - 乾隆通寶
Ch'ien Lung T'ung Pao

(The most common copper cash in Chinese Coinage)
1735AD - 1796AD

在中國方孔錢中,我相信清代的乾隆通寶是最常見的。或者你未必同意我的看法。清高宗乾隆統治中國凡六十年,他甚至可以再做多幾年皇帝。但為了不超越其祖父:康熙皇帝(在位六十一年),他在西曆一七九六年,傳位於皇太子顒,即清仁宗嘉慶皇帝。乾隆被尊為太上皇帝。直至西曆一七九九年,即嘉慶四年,高宗才離開人世,享年八十八歲。清仁宗正式親政。而乾隆通寶即使在乾隆去世後,仍然繼續鼓鑄。特別在新疆和西藏等較偏遠的省份,想信乾隆死後,一段很長的時間才停鑄乾隆通寶。由此可以想像乾隆通寶的鑄額一定十分驚人。

Ch'ien Lung T'ung Pao is the most common standard cash in the history of the Chinese coinage. I don't know whether you agree or not. Ch'ien Lung Emperor (Emperor Kao Tsung) had ruled China for 60 years. Plenty of the copper cash were cast during the period of the Ch'ien Lung reign. Actually he could have ruled longer, but he was the grandson of the K'ang Hsi Emperor, he could no exceed his grandfather who had reigned China for 61 years. Ch'ien Lung, the oldest emperor of China, was passed away in 1799 at the age of eighty eight, but Ch'ien Lung T'ung Pao went on to cast in Sinkiang province in order to show off Ch'ien Lung Emperor's success in Sinkiang.


當我拿起一枚乾隆通寶的時候,我不由得聯想起一些有關乾隆皇帝的趣事。乾隆五十八年,即一七九三年六月,英國遣使馬戛爾爵士等來華奉表進貢。其貢品包括天文地理儀器、軍器、樂器、鐘表和車輛等物。八月,英使入覲,乾隆賜敕書并賜錦緞等物。但英使請派人居中國管理貿易,又請至寧波、天津等處互市,乾隆皆不淮。

個人以為,當時中國雖在康乾盛世之末,但軍事和經濟的力量仍然非常強大。乾隆志得意滿,貴為大清天朝上國的君主。相信乾隆當時認為:我天朝上國,無所不有。可以說俯視環宇,民豐物阜,衣冠器具、文治教化、樣樣俱全。根本沒有把你這荒蠻狄夷來使看在眼裡。居然還膽敢說派人來我大清皇朝幫助管理貿易。簡直是一大笑話。據文獻記載,這位馬爵爺挺有性格,當入覲之時不肯行三跪九叩之禮。相信乾隆心裡一定很詫異。但乾隆總算有大國君主的海量。賜給他敕書及錦緞等禮物。及至九月時,又命軍機大臣松筠(一七五四–一八三五)護送英使臣至浙江,再由內河水路赴廣東經澳門回國。

二十三年後,英國人對於打開中國市場這塊肥肉並沒有忘記,至嘉慶二十一年,即一八一六年七月,英國再遣另一位使節阿美士德爵士來朝,嘉慶皇帝以其不遵行三跪九叩禮儀,不願見他,又致書英皇,令其以後也不必再遣使來華。英國的如意算盤終於打不嚮。這個結果或者也是日後的鴉片戰爭的小因數呢?

據西方文獻記載,那位新使節已經答應忍辱負重,行其三跪九叩大禮。但嘉慶仍不肯接見他。我執筆寫這網頁時,海峽兩岸的經貿談判人員,經過十多年的努力,終得償所願,海峽兩岸剛剛先後加入了世界貿易組識,體現了中國在全球經濟貿易中的地位。無論如何,這是一件值得慶賀的事。但是歷史的不公正,近百年對中國的無情磨鍊,中華民族所經歷的辛酸和滄桑,令人不無唏噓。

When I take up a piece of Ch'ien Leung Tung Pao cash coin, it is easy for me to remember that Ch'ien Lung Emperor refused to meet the British embassy led by Lord Macartney in 1793, as Macartney refused to perform the Kotow [(Knock the head against the ground). In ancient China, it was very common for Chinese to perform the Kotow. When they were received by the emperor. Chinese did it in order to offer respect to the emperor. But, it was considered humiliating by westerners.]. In 1816, Chia Ch'ing Emperor, the 15th son of the Emperor Kao Tsung, refused to receive Lord Amherst, the second British embassador again, though he agreed to perform the Kotow. [ According to the Chinese references, this second British embassy refused to perform the Kotow again.]

Ch'ien Lung Emperor was the fourth son of Yung Zheng Emperor who died suddenly after had reigned China for 13 years before he had reached the age of 60.

[The emperors of China considered China as the Central Kingdom and a great economic and cultural center, they refused to accept foreign countries as China's equals. In the eyes of the emperors, they were just tributary states. Qing government ignored the economic changes outside China. However, the British thought that free trade was beneficial to both parties. The British government had sent their diplomatic mission but failed in the end. This may be a small factor which caused the immoral Opium War.]


乾隆通寶通常將皇帝的名號以漢文鑄在正面,而將各鑄局之名以滿文鑄於背面。在這網頁中,我將一起介紹兩枚乾隆通寶。無獨有偶,每枚銅錢都有一個小孔。普通的泉友未必會喜歡這兩枚銅錢。因為品相不佳。但這兩個小孔對我來說卻十分重要。這兩枚銅錢都是熟坑錢,在我之前,相信有很多泉友看過這兩枚銅錢。但是因為有小孔,他們都不要。最後我幸運地得遇這兩枚錢。老實說乾隆通寶一般來說真的一點也不起眼。我覺得自己錢緣不淺。我只以每枚港幣二圓在上環購得這兩枚乾隆通寶。

事實上,在香港很多賣二手貨的地攤中,都會有舊錢幣出賣。例如深水步的鴨遼街和上環的摩囉街一帶,很多小販在假日中擺買。偶然也可低價購得罕有的錢幣,當然運氣十分重要。最近一位海外的前輩泉友教導我,若希望豐富自己的藏泉知識,首先對於一些質優的藏泉書籍或資料,切勿放過。即使價錢很貴,也應盡量閱讀。其次就是經常請教別人,即使別人覺得你的問題是愚蠢的,或令人覺得你是無知的,在所不計。我覺得這兩點都很有道理。

Ch'ien Lung T'ung Pao were inscribed normally with the name of the reign period of issue on the front and the mint name on the back in Manchu scripts only.
I have posted two worn-out Ch'ien Lung cash coins here. You can see clearly that both of the coins appeared with a hole on the surface. I think other collectors would not like it except me. These two holes are very important to me. As these two coins are known as "Shu-Heng" [cash coin unearthed long time ago] or "Ch'uan-Shih-P'in" [cash coin have never buried in the soil] by the Chinese collectors. Collecting is nothing new, people have been doing it for centuries. In the passing years, there were so many people have seen them previously, but nobody wanted to keep them until I found them, may be just because they were worn-out. I think I am lucky to collect them even with an unbelievable cheap price. I spent totally less than US$1 to get them in the flea market.
Really, coins can be found in most peculiar places. I have noticed that flea markets are good places to look for in Hong Kong [Apliu Street, Shamshuipo and Upper Lascar Row, Sheungwan]. Quite a few hawkers sell coins there during holidays, ranging from absolute rubbish to rare dates in XF condition.

Recently, I have learned much from an advanced numismatist on the Internet. He suggested that "Do not hesitate to buy the specialized references, though they may be expensive to us and always ask questions concerning our collecting field. Sometimes the questions may be stupid or dull." Good Suggestions! I completely agree with him.


在香港,雖然借閱圖書非常方便。但是在公立圖書館堙A有關鑄幣的書籍很少。我記得,有一次,我從離島到沙田圖書館,為了查閱一本一九二九年出版的有關中國古錢幣書籍,我想搞清楚一段有關康熙通寶的記載。我花了四個多小時的舟車勞頓,但只能在圖書館停留三十分鐘,為了僊就船期,我就馬上離開趕回離島去。但我覺得這是值得的,因為我得到我要的資料。這本書只在沙田公立圖書館藏有,但不能外借。我只好就在那塈蛝禤ヾC幸運地,我現在巳經在購得一冊了。

It is very easy to borrow books from the public libraries in Hong Kong, though there are not many numismatic books in there. I remember, once I have spent more than four hours to go to the Shatin Public Library from outside island in order to make sure what Mr. F. Schjoth thought about the K'ang Hsi coins in 1929. Because the only copy of "Chinese Currency" for public is kept by the Shatin Library in Hong Kong. [I needed to spend 4.5 hours for travelling between my home and the library, but I could stay in the library for half an hour only.] It is pity, but it is worth too, as much I need to learn. Luckily, I get a copy of the book now.


稀有度估計
Marks of Rareness of the Collected Currencies

極罕見 Extremely Rare - A ~ 甚罕見 Very Rare - B ~ 罕見 Rare - C ~ 較少見 Not So Many - D ~ 普通 Common - E

正面 Obverse背面 Reverse錢幣說明 Description








編號 No. 109
直徑 Diam.
25.5 mm
重量 Wt. 3.2 g.
稀有度 Rareness D
鑄幣沿革 Mint Evolution and Peculiarity

正面漢文錢文乾隆通寶,背面滿文寶臺表示此幣鑄於台灣省台南。我在上環摩囉街也見過另一寶台乾隆,也是在錢文中有一小孔。不過檔主取價太貴。我沒有買。清代的唐與昆在他纂輯的【制錢通考】中說:「臺灣寶臺局康熙二十七年開鑄,至乾隆年間停爐。所鑄錢文惟康熙年間小制錢,傳留至今尚多,若雍正、乾隆二號錢,今己不可多見。」唐與昆在清同治年間己經很難見到雍正和乾隆兩朝寶臺局所鑄的制錢,由此可以知道乾隆寶臺局的制錢, 即使在十九世紀的中期,也是比較罕見的。

On the obverse of this cash is the legend of "Ch'ien Lung T'ung Pao" in direct reading or symmetric reading. On the reverse of this coin, bearing the identification mark in Manchu scripts "Pao" and "T'ai" showing that this coin was cast in Tainan of Taiwan. Once, I had seen another specimen of the same coin in Upper Lascar Row, HK. It is strange that there is also a worn-out appeared on the surface of the coin.
The ancient coinage book, "Chih Ch'ien T'ung Kao" (A Comprehensive study of Chinese Coin) written by Mr. T'ang Yu K'un in 1852. Mr. T'ang stated in his book:

"Pao Tai Mint was established in the 27 year of the K'ang Hsi reign (1688AD) beginning casting copper cash. It ceased minting during the Ch'ien Lung period. Recently, what I could see are the small K'ang Hsi copper cash only, I have hardly seen the Yung Zheng and Ch'ien Lung cash."

From the old book, I find that Ch'ien Lung Pao-Tai coin was rare even in the 19th century.
正面 Obverse背面 Reverse錢幣說明 Description






編號 No. 110
直徑 Diam.
25 mm
重量 Wt. 3.4 g.
稀有度 Rareness D
鑄幣沿革 Mint Evolution and Peculiarity

正面錢文和上面那枚一樣,背面寶濟二字的滿文分別在中穿的兩邊。這枚錢鑄於山東濟南寶濟局。現在讓我們看看清代的唐與昆在【制錢通考】中怎樣說:「山東寶濟局係乾隆三年停止。故四年以前所鑄之黃錢尚有寶濟錢文。自五年改鑄青錢以後,即無此一種也。」唐某認為在一七四零年改鑄青錢後,寶濟局巳經沒有鑄乾隆通寶了。這就是乾隆寶濟通寶較少原因。

The inscriptions bearing on this coin are the same as the above cash, except Manchu characters "Pao" and "Chi" minning (Tsinan Mint) on either side of the square hole on the reverse. This coin was cast in Tsinan Mint of Shantung Province.

Now, let us see what Mr. T'ang Yu K'un stated in his book about this coin in 1852.

"Pao-Chi-Chu (Tsinan Mint) of Shantung Province was ceased minting in the 3rd year of the Ch'ien Lung reign (1738AD). So that, I still can see the inscriptions of Pao-Chi Mint on the "Huang-Ch'ien" [Yellow coins] which was cast before 4th year of the Ch'ien Lung reign, but I have ever seen them since the changing of minting the "Ch'ing-Ch'ien" [Green coins] in the 5th year of the Ch'ien Lung period (1740AD)"
In Qing Dynasty and earlier times, copper cash were referred to by their colour as "Ch'ing-Ch'ien" (green coins) and brass ones as "Huang-ch'ien" (Yellow coins). The colour of the cash is highly dependent on the metallic content of copper, tin, zinc and lead.



    Bibliography
  1. T'ang Yu K'un:制錢通考 Chih Ch'ien T'ung K'ao (A comprehensive study of chinese coins p.94) ISBN7-81001-652-7/F.28
  2. Ting Fu Pao:古錢大辭典,中華書局。(A dictionary of ancient Chinese coins) 1982.
  3. A History of Chinese Currency (16th Century BC - 20th Century AD), 1983 Jointly Published by Xinhua (New China) Publishing House N.C.N. Limited M.A.O. Management Group Ltd. ISBN 962 7094 01 3
  4. Pang Hsin Wei:中國貨幣史,上海人民出版社。(The Currency History of China.), 1988. ISBN7-208-00196-0/K.47
  5. 黃時鑒:中西關系史年表,浙江人民出版社,一九九四年, ISBN 7-213-01050-6/K.279








Home Page
主頁
New Data
最新資料
Chronology
歷史編年表
HK/Macao
港澳錢幣
Cast Coins
中國古錢
Struck Coins
機鑄幣
Paper Money
紙幣
Values/Wants
估值及征購
Links/References
網站鏈接參考
Any additional comment would be much appreciated, you can send it to YKL.










eXTReMe Tracker