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K'ang Hsi T'ung Pao


( 1661 ~ 1722 A.D. )

Part B

In 1661, The young Shun Chih Emperor caught smallpox and passed away. His third son, Hsuan Yeh was chosen to succeed the throne at the age of eight with the reign title K'ang Hsi. The Emperor K'ang Hsi had reigned China for 61 years. His long and prosperous reign periods was famous not only of the Qing dynasty but of the whole of Chinese history. When he passed away in 1722, he left a flourshng and stable kingdom.

The coinage of the K'ang Hsi series is very interesting. Have you heard about the K'ang Hsi Ch'ien Shih ? It was arranged by the Chinese collector with the different mints in the form of a Chinese poetry during the Chien Long period and now it is the favourite target for the Chinese collectors.



T'ung

Fu

Lin

Tung

Chiang,

Hsuan

Yuan

Su

Chi

Ch'ang,

Nan

Ho

Ning

Kuang

Che,

T'ai

Kuei

Shen

Yun

Chang.


Marks of Rareness of the Collected Currencies
Extremely Rare A ~ Very Rare B ~ Rare C ~ Not So Many D ~ Common E

Obverse Reverse Description
No. 0051
Mint: Chihli
Diam. 27 mm
Wt. 3.7 g.
Rareness E
Mint Evolution and Peculiarity
The Hsuan Hua Mint was first established at Chihli in 1645 for the minting of the Shun Chih T'ung Pao cash coins, each weighting 1.2 mace [ 1 mace = 1/10 tael = 3.73 gram. Some sources suggested that though the order to cast might have been issued in 1645, Hsuan Hua Mint was not able to start before 1646AD ] with the "Hsuan" mint mark in Chinese Character only on the reverse.
In 1653, it also cast coins bearing with Chinese characters I Li [left] and Hsuan [right] on the reverse, each weighing 1.25 maces. I-Li cash was ceased minting in the 17th year of the Shun Chih reign (1660AD). The Hsuan Hua Mint resumed in 1667 when it began minting of K'ang Hsi T'ung Pao bearing the "Hsuan" mint marks in both Han and Manchu scripts on the reverse. It ceased minting in the 10th year of the K'ang Hsi reign (1671AD)
No. 0052
Mint: Shansi
Diam. 27 mm
Wt. 5.2 g.
Rareness E
Mint Evolution and Peculiarity
This coin was cast by the Taiyuan mint of Shansi province with the "Yuan" mint marks written in both Manchu and Han script on the reverse. K'ang Hsi T'ung Pao of Taiyuan mint was first cast in 1667. As the character "Yuan" means Taiyuan, another one "Yuan" means Pao-Yuan [Board of Works], it could be easily mixed up with the same pronunciations. So be careful.
No. 0053
Mint: Kiangsu
Diam. 26.5 mm
Wt. 4.1 g.
Rareness D
Mint Evolution and Peculiarity
This K'ang Hsi T'ung Pao was cast by Soochow mint of Kiangsu province. On the reverse are the "Su" mint marks in both Manchu and Han scripts . When Kiangnan province was split into Kiangsu and Anhui two provinces in the 6th year of K'ang Hsi reign (1667AD). Soochow mint began to cast coins, It had stopped casting coins from 1670. In 1730, the eighth year of the Yung Zheng reign, Pao Su Mint was established in Soochow and cast coins again.
No. 0054
Mint: Chihli
Diam. 27.5 mm
Wt. 4.4 g.
Rareness D
Mint Evolution and Peculiarity
Chichow Mint was another mint in Chihli province. The mint was first established in the 2nd year of Shun Chih reign (1645AD). On the reverse are mint marks "Chi" in both Manchu script and Han script . It ceased minting in 1671, until the 4th year of Hsien Feng reign (1854AD) it resumed minting of the big coins. [Qing government cast various kinds of big coins with great face value to meet vast military expenses during the Taiping revolution, from five to a thousand cash in a variety of sizes and weights.]
No. 0055
Mint: Kiangsi
Diam. 27 mm
Wt. 3.8 g.
Rareness E
Mint Evolution and Peculiarity
The Kiangsi province had been a very famous casting center in the history of the Chinese coinage since Shang dynasty. During Qing dynasty, Nanchang Mint was first established in 4th year of the Shun Chih reign (1647AD). In 1667, Nanchang Mint began to cash K'ang Hsi T'ung Pao bearing with "Ch'ang" mint marks in both Han script and Manchu script on the reverse. The coinage of Nanchang Mint had been lasted until the Repubic of China.
According to the book of Jiangxi Lidai Qianbitulu by Mr. Lung Chi Ch'ang, Mr. Lung found that the diameters of K'ang Hsi Nanchang copper cash are from 27.6mm to 22.2mm, weight from 5 grams to 2 grams amount his huge collections of K'ang Hsi coin.


Kiangsi : The name of "Kiangsi" began in the 21st year of Hoi Yuan during the reign of Emperor Hsuan Tsung of the Tang dynasty (733AD). The whole country was divided in 15 "Tao" [provinces] at that time. Hungchow [ now, Nanchang ] was in Kiangnan Sitao [means south-western part of The Yangtze River or The Long River]. The Kiangsi province had been a very famous casting center in the history of the Chinese coinage since Shang dynasty. In the whole country of Southern Tang (937~975 AD.), 20% of coins were cast by the mints located in what now Kiangsi province, 12% in Sung dynasty, and Kiangsi Mint was the largest mint in Ming dynasty, because 37% of the China's mintage was cast by the Kiangsi mints in the whole country. Kiangsi and Yunan province had the largest copper mines in China.

I Li : An attempt of bimetallism [System of having two metals, eg. gold and silver, with a fixed ratio to each other as legal tender.] was made in the tenth year of the Shunchih reign to the seventh year of the Shunchih reign (1653-1660), to make the cash subsidiary to the tael of silver, with each copper cash coin worth 0.001 tael of silver, but this exchange ratio could not be maintained and the I Li copper cash were withdrawn in 1660.

More about K'ang Hsi T'ung Pao Part A, or Part C, or Part D, or Part E.


    Bibliography

  1. T'ang Yu K'un:制錢通考 Chih Ch'ien T'ung K'ao (A comprehensive study of chinese coins.)
  2. Lung Chi Ch'ang : Jiangxi Lidai Qianbitulu, 1991. ISBN 7-80580-071-5/J.68.
  3. Wei Chien Yu:中國近代貨幣史,群聯出版社 ,1955, (Currency history of Modern China.)
  4. Ting Fu Pao:古錢大辭典,中華書局 (A dictionary of ancient Chinese coins.)
  5. Werner Burger : Ch'ing Cash until 1735, Mei Ya Publications, Inc. 1976.
  6. Pang Hsin Wei:中國貨幣史,上海人民出版社, (The Currency History of China.), 1988. ISBN7-208-00196-0/K.47
  7. 張作耀:中國歷史便覽,人民出版社,1992, (Zhong Guo Lishi Bianlan) ISBN 7-01-000308-4/k.53.



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