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K'ang Hsi T'ung Pao

( 1661 ~ 1722 A.D. )

Part D


In 1661, The young Shun Chih Emperor caught smallpox and passed away. His third son, Hsuan Yeh was chosen to succeed the throne at the age of eight with the reign title K'ang Hsi. The Emperor K'ang Hsi had reigned China for 61 years. His long and prosperous reign periods was famous not only of the Qing dynasty but of the whole of Chinese history. When he passed away in 1722, he left a flourshng and stable kingdom.

The coinage of the K'ang Hsi series is very interesting. Have you heard about the K'ang Hsi Ch'ien Shih ? It was arranged by the Chinese collector with the different mints in the form of a Chinese poetry during the Chien Long period and now it is the favourite target for the Chinese collectors.



T'ung

Fu

Lin

Tung

Chiang,

Hsuan

Yuan

Su

Chi

Ch'ang,

Nan

Ho

Ning

Kuang

Che,

T'ai

Kuei

Shen

Yun

Chang.




Marks of Rareness of the Collected Currencies
Extremely Rare A ~ Very Rare B ~ Rare C ~ Not So Many D ~ Common E

Obverse Reverse Description
No. 0061
Mint: T'ainan
Diam. 23 mm
Wt. 2.8 g.
Rareness C
Mint Evolution and Peculiarity
In 1683, T'aiwan returned to China as a part of Fukien Province, when she was captured by the Qing government. But until 1689, a mint was established in T'ainan and cast coin bearing with "T'ai" mint marks in both Chinese and Manchu scripts on the reverse. Taiwan Mint was terminated in 1692. That is why Taiwan coins are rather scarce. T'aiwan cash are comparatively small and the large cash are forgery or recast in the later period as "poem cash" only.
Obverse Reverse Description
No. 0062
Mint: Kweilin
Diam. 26 mm
Wt. 3.9 g.
Rareness D
Mint Evolution and Peculiarity
This coin was cast by the Kweilin mint of Kwangsi province with the "Kwei" mint marks written in both Manchu and Han script on the reverse. In 1668, Kweilin mint was first cast copper cash of 1.4 mace in weight and later reduced to 1 mace in 1683. But, Kweilin mint cast cash of 1.4 mace again in 1702. During the 61 years of the K'ang Hsi reign, Kwilin mint had cast cash for 46 years, it had been produced copper cash about 1,184, 960,000 pieces.
Obverse Reverse Description
No. 0063
Mint: Sian
Diam. 27.5 mm
Wt. 5.1 g.
Rareness E
Mint Evolution and Peculiarity
This K'ang Hsi T'ung Pao was cast by Sian mint of Shensi province. On the reverse are the "Shan" mint marks in both Manchu and Han scripts . The Sian mint was first established in the 2nd year of the Shunchih reign (1645AD) as the provincial mint. In 1662, Sian mint was terminated casting coins just as other porvincial mints, and it reopened in 1667. At last, it had stopped casting coins in 1670.
Obverse Reverse Description
No. 0064
Mint: Kunming
Diam. 27 mm
Wt. 5.4 g.
Rareness D
Mint Evolution and Peculiarity

Have you noticed the different appearance in colour of the Yunnan Kanghsi cash? It is a little reddish appearance compared with other cash. The composition of the standard cash was 60% of copper and 40% of zinc during Qing dynasty. But cash cast in Yunnan Province was exception which was allowed to use 20% zinc and 80% copper to cast coin, because zinc was more expensive than copper in Yunnan Province.

There were at least seven mints in existence in Yunnan Province during different period of Qing dynasty, in cluding Kun-ming, Ta-li, Meng-tse, Lin-an, Chan-i, Lu-feng and Tung Ch'uen Mint. Yunnan mints produced about 288 million pieces of copper cash each year during K'anghsi period.

In 1686, Fan Cheng Hsun, Governor General of the Yunnan and Kueichui Provinces, found that there were so much copper cash produced by the Yunnan Mints. The over supply of the copper coins had caused the price of the cash to reduce. The government needed to pay 30% of cash coins in stead of silver for the army's pay. It was very inconvenient for the soilders. Disturbances were caused in the military. After Fan put down the trouble, he urged to cease casting coins in Yunnan Province and paid to the soilders with silver only. All the Yunnan Mints were terminated in the 28th year of the K'anghsi reign (1689AD).

Obverse Reverse Description
No. 0065
Mint: Changchow
Diam. 26 mm
Wt. 4.5 g.
Rareness D
Mint Evolution and Peculiarity
The Changchow Mint of Fukien province was first established in 19th year of the K'ang Hsi reign (1680AD). It began to cash K'ang Hsi T'ung Pao bearing with "Chang" mint marks in both Han script and Manchu script on the reverse. Please noted that there was another mint, Foochow mint existing in Fukien province too. But Foochow mint ceased minting in the 9th year of the K'ang Hsi reign (1670AD). In 1682, Changchow Mint which for reasons unknown was terminated to cast coins. Actually, it had cast cash for 2 years only. Changchow coin was not so many.


More about K'ang Hsi T'ung Pao Part A, or Part B, or Part C, or Part E.



    Bibliography

  1. Ch'ien Pi K'ao Ch'ing Ch'ao Wen Hsien T'ung , ( A Comprehensive Historical Compendium of the Documents of the Qing Dynasty, numismatics)
  2. T'ang Yu K'un ; Chih Ch'ien T'ung K'ao (A comprehensive study of chinese coins.)
  3. Wei Chien Yu : (Currency history of Modern China.)
  4. Ting Fu Pao : (A dictionary of ancient Chinese coins.)
  5. Werner Burger : Ch'ing Cash until 1735, Mei Ya Publications, Inc. 1976.
  6. Pang Hsin Wei : (The Currency History of China.), 1988. ISBN7-208-00196-0/K.47
  7. (Zhong Guo Lishi Bianlan) ISBN 7-01-000308-4/k.53.
  8. No.5 (The Commentaries of the Draft history of the Ch'ing Dynasty, Economical Informations from Official Historical Records), ISBN 7-109-01479-7/S.1025
  9. Tang Kuo Yen : (The Historical Currencies of Yunnan), 1989. ISBN7-222-00504-8/k.93


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